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Law Essay Help

Writing law essays requires deep understanding of legal concepts, applicable statutes and related case law. It also requires one to make sound arguments based on the concepts, laws and facts of the matter. Unfortunately, this can be quite a challenging task for learners. Here is an example of a question that touches on company law, more especially the Company Act 2006 (UK). Do you need help tackling this or a similar law question? Do you need law essay help? How about a little help to get you started? We have helped others in your situation and will be glad to help you too. Simply place your custom order to receive high quality help at an affordable price

“Alan, Brian and Charlotte formed Beautiful Boats Ltd (‘Boats’) in 2000 to manufacture top-end, expensive motor boats. They are all directors and equal shareholders in Boats. The business initially did very well as Boats successfully won contracts to build several very expensive boats for multi-millionaire businessmen. Recently, however, business prospects have not been looking so good with orders for new boats down in a declining market for expensive top-end boats. In fact, things have got so bad financially that Boats is heading towards insolvency, but Alan, who is finance director, has not informed Brian and Charlotte of the true financial position and they have not asked any questions about the financial position in board meetings. Alan and Charlotte think that the company should diversify into building smaller, cheaper boats as the market for those boats has not shown any decline, but Brian wants to stick with making expensive top-end boats as that is where the company has made its reputation. Alan and Charlotte enter negotiations with Best Boats Ltd (‘Best’) who have successfully made smaller, cheaper boats for thirty years and who are looking to expand. Alan and Charlotte propose that Best invest millions of pounds in Boats and acquire a majority interest in Boats in exchange. Brian objects to the proposal, but Alan and Charlotte exercise powers contained in the articles of association of Boats to issue thousands of shares to Best, making Best the majority shareholder. Brian is furious and claims that Alan and Charlotte are unjustifiably handing control of the company over to Best. Alan and Charlotte claim that Boats needs finance and the investment from Best is the only way the company can continue to thrive in the long term. With reference to relevant statutory provisions and case law, advise Alan and Charlotte on their potential liability for breach of duty under ss. 171, 172 & 174 of the Companies Act 2006”. – Alan and Charlotte potential liability for breach of duty.


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Harbour Baseline Survey for Environmental Status

Baseline studies are important in assessing the health of an environment. An environment is considered healthy when it is devoid of pollutants or has low doses of pollutants and has an ecosystem that is both successful and actively functioning. A baseline study was conducted in July 2009 and its results presented. The results of the Aberdeen Harbour Baseline Survey for Environmental Status were recorded and stored. These results should be viewed in the context of a single temporal interpretation. Before the study was conducted, its objectives and design were discussed with stakeholders and in the same manner, its results have been passed to them.

Twenty-nine sites were collected along a transect extending from the inner bay towards its mouth, using a Van Veen grab and three samples taken at each site. From the samples taken, a range of parameters were measured relating to the nutrient status of the water and the presence of enteric bacteria. In addition, the concentrations of several chemicals/elements including arsenic, chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, manganese, nickel zinc and oil were measured from sediments. A number of data sets have been provided containing the data obtained from the study.

Using one of the datasets provided, you can focus your work on addressing research you will develop based on the dataset of your choice. You can ask any question relevant to your dataset. You should aim to address at least two questions in your report. Your report (roughly 2000 words) should include a graphical abstract, short introduction with researcher questions and hypotheses, methodology (only on the statistics used) findings, discussion, references, and appendices. Support your findings with appropriate figures and tables. Part of one dataset is presented below. Variables in the dataset include site no, seasons, pH, A Cu, A Pb).

Harbour Baseline Survey for Environmental Status

Have you been presented with one or more datasets for a Harbour Baseline Survey for Environmental Status and have no idea where to begin? We have handled similar tasks before and can help you complete your task, no matter the dataset you have chosen. We are proficient in statistics, data analysis, data presentation, and report/proposal/dissertation writing. Do you need professional writing help? – Order a custom written essay, report, and dissertation  from one of the best essay writing service UK at a most affordable price

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Social Theory Insights to Social Workers

Social work is a helping profession and therefore it is concerned about fostering social justice, equality, and non-discrimination. The profession is influenced by several theories including social and social work theories. Social theories can give social workers insights into different situations that affect people, groups, or clients. Some of the issues that societies or social groups face and that are of interest to social work are inequality, social justice, discrimination, and disadvantage. Social inequality is a situation in which rewards and opportunities are unequally presented or distributed for different social positions or statuses within a group or society. Social inequality may come in different forms including gender inequality, income inequality, and ethnic/racial inequality. On the other hand, social justice has a lot to do with fairness, equal opportunities and equal rights. The following section briefly discusses social theory insights to social workers to understand issues of inequality, disadvantage and social justice.

Social Theory and the Insights They Can Give to Social Workers to Understand Issues of Inequality, Disadvantage and Social Justice

With regard to social theories, there are several questions or issues that social workers can ask with regard to social theory and the insights they can give to social workers:

  • Which social theories influence social work?
  • How can social theory give social workers insight to understand issues of inequality, disadvantage and social justice within an area of social work practice?
  • What is the relationship between social policy, sociological theory and social work practice?
  • How does social policy in the UK influence social work practice in relation to inequality, social justice, discrimination, and disadvantage?
  • What do the Professional Capabilities Framework (PCF) or the Professional Association for Social Work and Social Workers (BASW) and the Health and Care Professions Council (HCPC) say about equality, social justice, and discrimination?
  • How do social theories influence one’s personal practice as a social worker?

One of the many theories that influence social work and social work practice is the social conflict theory, or simply, the conflict theory. Social conflict theory basically views society as being unequal and proposes that this inequality is a source of conflict and contributes to social change. This is one among a number of theories that social workers in different areas of practice or dealing with specific user groups can rely on to understand issues of inequality, social justice, discrimination, and disadvantage.

Do you need to answer the question: “Choose one social theory to critically discuss the insights it can give social workers to understand issues of inequality, disadvantage and social justice within an area of social work practice”? Are you stuck answering this or any other social work question? We have helped several people in your situation and are confident about the kind of quality we offer. How about getting research writing help, social work writing help, essay writing help, dissertation writing help from one of the best essay writing service UK? Order your custom essay/paper or contact us.  

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Best Essay Writing Help UK

Essay Writing Help UK

Have you ever wondered where to find essay writing help in the UK? Here is a brief guide on how and where to find best essay writing help UK. High school, college, and university students often have to write essays as part of their course work. In many cases, these essays act as assignments which contribute to the student’s scores or final grade. Because essays can affect the student’s grade, it is important for every student to achieve the best possible scores in their essay writing assignments. However, essay writing is a challenging task for many students and so they need the best essay writing help. The student may need help in choosing a topic to write on or in finding good sources to use. The student may also need help writing an essay on a given topic that he or she may not be good at.  He/she may also need help formatting the essay and referencing sources. In such a case, the student needs to find essay writing help from a good essay writing service. 

Although there are several essay writing service providers in the UK, not all of them offer great service. If you are in need of essay writing help or assignment help, you should be careful to choose the best essay writing service. Finding the best essay writing help online can be difficult because several people claim to provide good essay writing service without providing real proof about the quality of service that they offer.

How to Find the Best Essay Writing Service

Although finding the best essay writing service or the best assignment writing service can be difficult, there are a number of things that you can do to ensure that you choose only the best assignment help service. Here are a few things to look out for as you choose your essay help service:

  1. Can the writers write at Undergraduate, Masters, and PhD level?
  2. Do past customers talk well about the essay help service (customer feedback)?
  3. Does the assignment help service promise original, plagiarism free essays?
  4. Does the service provide some free services such as free title page, abstract, and references?
  5. Does the essay help service offer dissertation or thesis help services? Since dissertations and theses are extremely difficult to write, companies that can provide these services tend to be high quality essay help writers.
  6. Are the prices affordable or too expensive?
  7. Are there high quality samples from which you can confirm their quality of service being offered?

Best Essay Writing Service UK

There are several essay writing service UK providers just like there are many essay writing service US providers. Whichever country you are in, you can find the best essay writing service to meet your needs. The best essay writing service will provide the best essay help service to you wherever you are and regardless of the school, college, or university you are in.  Contrary to popular belief, the best essay help service need not be the most expensive. There are cheap essay writing service providers that provide some of the best assignment help services. Once you provide your essay or assignment help instructions, the essay writing service will select the best assignment writer UK  to come up with an essay that exceeds or meets your needs. A good essay writer will ensure that your paper is well researched so that you get the right content, your paper is properly formatted, your paper is well referenced, and your paper is original and free of plagiarism. SolvitOnline is one of the best essay writing service that provides its services in the UK, US, Australia, Saudi Arabia and many other countries.

Write my Research Paper Online

Do you need cheap essay writing service? Are you wondering who can write my research paper online? Are you asking, is there a cheap essay writing service where I can buy custom college papers online? Fortunately, there is a happy answer to all these questions. provides cheap essay writing service to those who need write my research paper online services. You can buy custom college papers online and also pre-written college papers from SolvitOnline. All you need to do is provide your instructions, pay for the service, sit back and relax as your custom paper is written by an expert writer with knowledge in your subject area. Apart from the high quality it offers, solvitonline also has the cheapest prices for custom college papers and the best assignment writer UK.

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Statistics Help

Are you stuck with statistics questions? Do you find the following statistics questions difficult to answer? Do you need statistics help, SPSS help, or PASW help? Find statistics questions help using our writing service at an affordable price Order Now

Do you have a statistics project on any topic that is troubling you? Would you like to be helped with your SPSS project? We will help you code the data that you have on SPSS, analyse the data, and write a report on the study at an affordable rate. We just helped someone complete this project and they were amazed at our speed and quality. Here are the project details:

Question A
1. Name the variables and indicate whether they are continuous or categorical. (2 marks) – (Gender, Customer Satisfaction, etc)
2. Compute the mean, median and mode for customers’ satisfaction. (2 marks)
3. Explain the advantages and disadvantages of the three measures of central
Tendency. (3 marks)
4. Name four measures of dispersion. Explain the advantages and disadvantages for each measure. (3 marks)
5. Compute the variance and standard deviation for customers’ satisfaction. (2 marks)
6. The histogram below illustrates the normality for the variable customers’ satisfaction. Make some conclusions about the normality. Please, give the definitions of the concepts a) skewness and b) kurtosis. (4 marks)
7. Find the frequencies for the variable Gender. What is the total number of customers? Are there any missing values? (2 marks)
8. Create an appropriate graph(s) (in Microsoft Excel or SPSS) to show the number of males and females. (2 marks)

Question B
For each of the following variables, determine whether the variable is categorical or
numerical. If the variable is numerical, determine whether the variable is discrete or
continuous. (10 marks)
1. Number of telephones per household
2. Whether there is a high-speed Internet connection in the household
3. Name of Internet provider
4. Amount of time spent surfing the Internet per month
5. Number of online purchases made in the past month
6. Number of textbooks purchased in a month
7. Number of e-mails received in a week
8. Whether the individual has a smartphone
9. Employment status
10. Height

Question C
The following table represents world oil consumption in millions of barrels a day in
1. Compute the percentage of values in each category. (8 marks)
2. Create an appropriate graph(s) (in Microsoft Excel or SPSS) to show the percentage of oil consumption in different regions. (2 marks)

Question D
The following data represent the battery life (in shots) for a sample of 12 three-pixel
digital cameras:
300, 180, 85, 170, 380, 460, 260, 35, 380, 120, 110, 240
1. Compute the mean, median, and mode (4 marks)
2. Compute the range, variance and standard deviation (4 marks)
3. Are the data skewed? If so, how? (2 marks)

Question E
The data below is about the cost of electricity during May 2010 for a random sample
of 50 one-bedroom apartments in a large city.
90 96 154 171 143 187 166 137 213 153
163 95 140 130 120 191 90 145 108 119
135 168 95 172 202 116 178 130 141 197
150 144 128 123 175 140 149 147 183 200
114 150 98 111 148 206 185 151 102 157

1. Construct a frequency distribution and a percentage distribution that have class
intervals with the upper class boundaries $119, $139, and so on. (10 marks)
2. Construct a cumulative percentage distribution. (3 marks)

Question F
An experiment has a single factor with four groups and eight values in each group.
5. At the 0.05 significance level (Fa = 3.89) what is your statistical decision? Please, give a detailed explanation. (8 marks)

Question G
A marketing manager of a well-known bookstore in the UK conducted a survey measuring customers’ loyalty. Customers’ Loyalty was measured with one question on an ordinal scale from 1 to 10, with lower values indicating less strength and higher values greater strength. The manager also took details on their gender. The manager performed a t-test to examine whether there was an association between the variables loyalty and gender. The results are shown below: 

T-test results for loyalty between male and females. Grouping variable was
gender. The mean difference expresses: (male’s mean – female’s mean).
1. What are the assumptions of t-tests? Give examples. (5 marks)
2. What is the difference between a null hypothesis H0, and an alternative hypothesis, H1? What is the null hypothesis and the alternative hypothesis in this question? (4 marks)
3. Is loyalty significantly associated with gender? Why? Please, specify your answer. (4 marks)

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Segmentation, Targeting and Positioning, Volkswagen

Segmentation, Targeting & Positioning by Volkswagen

Segmentation, Targeting and Positioning, Volkswagen


Many successful companies across the world apply segmentation, targeting and positioning (STP) as part of their marketing strategies. Volkswagen (VW), a company that makes cars is one of the successful companies that apply STP. Established in 1937, the company manufactures several car brands including Audi, Seat, Lamborghini, Skoda, Porshe, Scania, Man, Bentley, Bugatti, and Volkswgen (Volkswgen, 2018a; Bhasin, 2017; Volkswgen, 2018b). While its headquarters is in Wolfburg, Germany, the company has several branches and plants spread out in different parts of the world. This enables it meet the needs of its global clientele, with the help of a robust distribution network. This paper focuses on how Volkswagen has segmented its market, its target markets (segments), and how the brand is positioned.

Segmentation and Targeting …

Market segmentation, according to William Stanton, is the process of dividing the heterogeneous market for a product into several sub-markets or segments, each of which tends to display homogeneity in all important aspects (Rudani, 2010; Tabavar n.d., p. 63). …… Targeting, according to Bihani (2004), is the processes of evaluating how attractive market segments are and choosing the segment(s) to enter … Volkswagen applies segmented marketing and has its market partitioned based on a mix of psychographic, geographic, demographic and behavioural factors to meet the specific needs of different groups of customers. With regard to psychographic segmentation, the company has segmented its market based on customers’ interests, beliefs, values, social status, and lifestyles. In this regard some of the segments the company targets include consumers who simply need mobility, …. , and consumers who need convenience and comfort. The compact or small cars that VW manufactures such as the beetle, polo, and golf are aimed at catering to the needs of consumers who simply need mobility or who simply wish to enjoy the utility value of a car (Schmid, 2013). These cars are simple in design and are not fitted with fancy or luxury components. These cars are also cheaper to buy and maintain. 

Sports …. as a market segment brings together consumers who enjoy driving and getting the maximum possible power, speed, and thrill out of a car … continue reading


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Segmentation, Targeting & Positioning Industry Examples

Market Segmentation, Targeting & Positioning with Industry Examples

Segmentation, Targeting & Positioning Industry ExamplesIntroduction

Ever increasing competition and greater demands by customers have rendered mass marketing virtually ineffective in several product categories (Harvard Business Review, 2006). As a consequence of the increasing competition and the rise of ever more demanding customers, producers are constantly seeking ways to differentiate their products and meet the specific needs of smaller customer groups. Today, it is a fact that coming up with a great product alone is not enough to achieve market success. Against this backdrop, companies need to apply strategic marketing. One of the strategic marketing tools that firms can use to their advantage towards achieving success in the market is segmentation, targeting and positioning (STP). Worth noting is that STP is as much a tool as it is a strategic approach and model used in marketing. STP is part of the process involved in coming up with a marketing strategy and summarises the market segmentation process. Hooley et al. (2012, p. 183) note that although positioning and segmentation are distinct parts of the [marketing] strategy, they are centrally linked by their focus on satisfying customers’ needs in a better way than competitors do. This paper discusses segmentation, targeting and positioning and illustrates the application of STP using different industry and company examples (with greater focus on car manufacturer, Volkswagen) – segmentation, targeting & positioning industry examples. The paper concludes with recommendations for companies with respect to the application of STP.

Market Segmentation

Market segmentation, according to William Stanton, is the process of dividing the heterogeneous market for a product into several sub-markets or 2 segments, each of which tends to display homogeneity in all important aspects (Rudani, 2010; Tabavar n.d., p. 63). Philip Kotler, on the other hand, defines segmentation as the process of dividing a market into discrete groups of buyers based on factors such as needs or characteristics, behaviour, marketing mixes, or who might require different products (Rudani, 2010). From the different definitions posted by different experts, market segmentation has several characteristics. Firstly, it is a process that involves partitioning the target market of a firm into consumer sub-groups. Secondly, market segmentation is done based on the understanding that consumers of a company’s products or services have different wants, resources, purchasing practices, buying attitudes, and geographic locations among other characteristics. Segmenting the market into subgroups or segments with specific characteristics enables the company meet the specific needs of the consumer subgroups more effectively.

As noted above, segmentation is aimed at enabling the firm give proper attention to the needs of specific customers that collectively form a segment, thereby maximising consumer satisfaction and profits for the business (Bihani, 2004). Segmentation also helps the firm identify the segments that are most attractive and that it can serve effectively without having to put a lot of effort in trying to serve all varieties of customers in all segments. Trying to serve all varieties of customers in all segments can easily result in ineffective and poor service to customers. Segmentation thus helps the firm focus its marketing efforts on consumers that have greater interest in and derived value from the products and services produced by the business. It also helps in effectively selecting a segment to target as noted by Dibb and Simkin (1996). As they engage in market segmentation, firms aim to satisfy the needs of the different consumer groups by adopting an appropriate marketing mix (products, price, place and promotion). 

A company’s market can be partitioned or divided based on different bases. Some of the bases commonly applied towards the segmentation of a market include demographic, behavioural, geographic, and psychographic characteristics (Anand, 2016). Within these broad bases are more specific characteristics such as religion, age, geographic location, income levels, gender, family size, lifestyle, culture, special needs, usage rate, occupation, personal interests, brand loyalty, consumer status, and consumption levels (Anand, 2016; Gilligan & Wilson, 2009). Firms that operate in international markets commonly use geographic, economic, cultural, intermarket, and legal/political characteristics as bases for their market segmentation (Walletzký, 2015).

A company such as cosmetics manufacturer L’Oréal applies demographic and psychographic segmentation in marketing its products.  <<<continue reading>>>

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Pestle Analysis Legal Services Industry UK

Pestle Analysis: UK Commercial Legal Services Industry

This is a PESTLE analysis legal services industry UK example. 

Pestle Analysis Legal Services Industry UK

Pestle Analysis by Fenwick & Co. LLP


Fenwick & Co. LLP is a law firm and partnership owned by two lawyers located in London’s Regent Street. Since the establishment of the firm, a number of changes have occurred in the business environment making it even more competitive. More law firms have been established in London and some have merged to form bigger corporations. In order to remain competitive, Fenwick & Co. LLP needs to analyse the external business environment with a view of identifying the measures it should take to remain competitive. The following sections of this report will discuss the political, economic, socio-cultural, technological, legal, and environmental factors of the market. The report will go further to provide recommendations that should be implemented to make the business perform better in a competitive business environment. 

<<Also see Pestle Analysis Small Law Firm in the UK>>

Political Environment

The UK has had a stable democratic government and peaceful political environment for several decades, the situation expected to remain the same in the foreseeable future. One major change in the political environment of the UK has come in the form of Brexit, which has brought a lot of uncertainty to the political environment of the country. While the full effects of a possible Brexit remain unclear to a great extent, it remains a fact that there is a strong link between the nation’s legal sector and the wider economy as well as market forces. The implementation of Brexit is likely to see the UK toughen immigration laws for citizens of the European Union, making it difficult for them to live and do business in the country. Currently, the country provides virtually unrestricted access to foreign firms from about 40 jurisdictions to establish and practice law within its borders (TheCityUK, 2016b). This may change depending on the outcome of the ongoing negotiations between the UK and the EU revolving around Brexit. As a result, many foreign companies in the legal sector are likely to withdraw from the UK which may effectively create opportunities for emerging law firms like Fenwick & Co. LLP (The Law Society, 2015). In spite of the current political situation facing the UK, English and Welsh law remain the choice of law internationally.

According to TheCityUK (2016b), the UK is the leading international market for legal services in the world as well as the leading international centre for resolving disputes. Coupled with this is the fact that Wales and England (together) is the jurisdiction of choice for many international organisations (The Law Society 2016).

Given that Fenwick & Co. LLP has foreign employees who are nationals of European Union countries, Brexit may lead to the loss of such employees or changes to their working conditions. Furthermore, Brexit may mean the loss of business for Fenwick & Co. LLP which serves customers across different EU countries on family matters and domestic conveyancing among other areas of law (The Law Society, 2015). This may be the case given that current and potential foreign customers may withdraw from the nation due to the implementation of tougher immigration policies and policies regulating foreign workers, which no doubt will affect the legal services industry.

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What is Wrong with Having a Nanny? – Philosophy

Is anything wrong with having a nanny?There are countless chores that fall within the domain of housework; washing dishes, sweeping, vacuuming, cooking, food shopping, and caring for children and countless others (Peacock, 2012). Housework is commonly assumed to be women’s work (Townsend, 2016). Every year, an average housewife spends between one and four thousand hours performing housework (Davis, 1981; Peacock, 2012). This amount of time does not include constant and unquantifiable attention that mothers have to give dedicate to their children. In spite of the huge amount of time and effort spent in it, housework is rarely appreciated (Davis 1981). In this regard, Ehrenreich and English (1975) note that housework is never noticed until it is not done. For example, people do not notice the scrubbed and polished floor but will quickly notice the unmade bed (Ehrenreich and English, 1975). < What is Wrong with Having a Nanny? – Philosophy >.

Nannies are charged with the responsibility of taking care of children in their home; work that squarely falls under the umbrella of housework. As noted by Ghaeus (2013), among other duties, nannies meet children’s security, affection, social and other needs and guide them in different situations. For many people, taking care of children at home is mindless work; work that they would rather leave to others if money allows (Townsend, 2016).  Unlike the carpenter, electrician, or plumber who earn their respect because of the intelligent skill they apply in their labour, housework seems to demand no particular skill.  There continues to be raging debate among philosophers, feminists, economists and other experts regarding housework, its importance and whether it should be done in the first place. Drawing on different perspectives, this paper seeks to answer the question, what, if anything, is wrong with having a nanny? < What is Wrong with Having a Nanny? – Philosophy >.

The Nature of What Nannies Do

One question that perhaps needs to be answered before determining what could be wrong with having a nanny is, does the activity that nannies do qualify to be work? For different people, “work” means different things. According to some experts, any activity that is productive or creative qualifies to be work. Others hold the view that any activity that is paid for qualifies as work. Some quarters define work as an activity that someone does so as to paid (wage labour) (Mies and Federici, 2014). Clearly, whether an activity falls within the domain of work depends on context and the type of activity being accomplished. In Karl Marx’s opinion the most precious thing in the life of a human being is engaging in creative activity (work). Even so, Marx considers working for wage, which he associates with capitalism, as being both dehumanising and a perversion of creative activity (Mies and Federici, 2014)

Perspectives on Nanny Work

Marxist feminists view housework as a form of wage labour that should not be considered like any other job (Federici 1975). In their view, housework is the most pervasive and subtle but mystified form of violence that capitalism has subjected a section of the working class to … Continue reading—>

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Online Sales Bans By Manufacturers Anti-competitive

Should Online Sales Bans Imposed By Product Manufacturers On Distributors Be Strongly Presumed to Be Anti-Competitive?
If a manufacturer of a product requires that its distributors do not make online sales, then that must harm competition and so such “online sales bans” should be strongly presumed to be anti-competitive.

Is it true that if a manufacturer of a product requires that its distributors do not make online sales, then that must harm competition and so such “online sales bans” should be strongly presumed to be anti-competitive.


Should Online Sales Bans Imposed By Product Manufacturers On Distributors Be Strongly Presumed to Be Anti-Competitive?


Firms may engage in vertical agreements with other firms or parties as a way of achieving goals they may not otherwise realise acting on their own. When they make such agreements with other companies or parties, firms may impose vertical restrictions. Such restrictions may come in the form of selecting distributors, limiting online sales among other conditions. An Online sales ban come into effect when a company requires its distributors not to make online sales. With anti-competitive practices generally prohibited in the European Union and indeed in many other jurisdictions, the question of the legality of online sales bans is one that lingers in the minds of many business owners and distributors. If, for example, a manufacturer of a product requires that its distributors do not make online sales, then that must harm competition. Should such “online sales bans” be strongly presumed to be anti-competitive? This paper attempts to answer this question and argues that absolute online sales bans by manufacturing companies are strongly presumed to be anti-competitive.

Anti-competition Laws and Vertical Restraints

Many countries have in place laws aimed at protecting consumers and businesses from unfair practices and practices that inhibit or thwart competition. In the UK in particular, Chapter I of the Competition Act 1998 expressly prohibits any agreement or concerted practice that restricts, prevents, or distorts competition unless such action enjoys exemption from the prohibition. In the same spirit, Article 101 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) forbids concerted practices, agreements and decisions by undertakings or group of undertakings acting together that aim to restrict, prevent, or distort competition within the common market or that may affect trade between European Union (EU) member countries. Continue reading —->